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Tamil Nadu - Industry Profile
Automobiles Industry in Tamil Nadu
The Indian Automotive Industry after de-licensing in July 1991, has grown at a spectacular rate of 17% on an average for last few years. The industry has now attained a turn over of Rs. 1,65,000 Crores (34 billion USD) and an investment of Rs. 50,000 Crores. Over of Rs. 35,000 Crores of investment is in pipeline. The industry is providing direct and indirect employment to 1.31 Crores people. It is also making a contribution of 17% to the kitty of indirect taxes. The export in automotive sector has grown on an average CAGR of 30% per year for the last five years and has reached a turnover of 8 billion USD. The export earnings from this sector are 3.5 billion US $ out of which the share of auto component sector 1.8 billion US$. It is estimated that the total turnover of the automotive industry in India would be of the order of US$ 75.3 billion in 2012 (a substantial increase from the size of US$ 34 billion in 2005-06).

There is a potential for much higher growth in the domestic market due to the fact that the current car penetration level in India is just 7 cars per thousand. The increase in purchasing power at the top echelon of about 300 million people in the country, where the per capita income is over US $ 1000, implies that passenger car growth in the domestic market is on the verge of a major and sustained boom. It is expected that the passenger car market which was 1 million in 2003-2004 can easily cross the 3 million mark by 2015. This can lead to an increase in the size of the domestic auto-component market from the current level of US $ 9.8 billion (2005-06) to at least US $ 15 billion by 2015.

Even with this rapid growth, the Indian Automotive Industry's contribution in global terms is very low. This is evident from the fact that the passenger car segment has crossed the production figure of 1 million in the year 2005-06. India's share is about 1.6% of world production as the total number of passenger car being manufactured in the world is 60 million against the installed capacity of 90 million. Similarly, export constitutes approximately 0.3% of global trade.
Status of Automobile Industry in Tamil Nadu:
  • Automobile industry occupies a pride of place in the industrial map of Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, Tamil Nadu is known for Manufacturing. Started in 1840, Simpsons pioneered India's automobile industry rail coaches, Motor Cars, Diesel engines and Steam passenger buses. In 1948, Ashok Leyland was started for assembly of Austin cars. The Integral Coach Factory (ICF) was established in October 1955. In 1960s, TVS Group Guidance Bureau Page 2 established a number of auto components manufacturing plants. However, this momentum was lost in subsequent years.
  • To rejuvenate the growth momentum in automobile industry, present Government brought out a very innovative Policy "Ultra Mega Policy for Integrated Automobile Projects" that offers a very attractive package of support to automobile projects investing more than Rs.4000 Crores. As a result of this Policy, since May 2006, investments attracted by Tamil Nadu in automobiles & components manufacturing is Rs.21900 Crores, almost 5 times of the Investments attracted during previous 15 years (May 1991- April 2006). The total employment potential in these new projects is:1.20 lakhs (Direct+Indirect).
  • As a result of our efforts, Chennai is now emerging as one Top 10 Global Automobile manufacturing centers. By 2010-11, Chennai will have an installed capacity to produce 12,80,000 cars and about 3,50,000 commercial vehicles each year. This translates to 3 cars output every minute and one Commercial vehicle every 75 seconds. During 2008-09, Chennai produced 5.33 lakhs passenger cars accounting for 32% of India's production.
  • From bicycles to battle tanks "B to B", everything that moves is manufactured at Chennai. More than 350 auto components suppliers are located in Tamil Nadu accounting for above 35% of India's production capacity.
  • Chennai has emerged as India's largest automobile and auto components exporter in India. Hyundai has made Chennai the manufacturing and export hub for its small cars. The 'i10 and i20' are being manufactured only in Chennai and exported to the world. Chennai is Hyundai's largest base outside Korea.
  • Caterpillar USA, Komatsu Japan and Doosan South Korea chose Chennai to establish large earth moving equipment manufacturing plants.
Auto components in Tamil Nadu
Indian auto component industry is quite comprehensive with around 500 firms in the organized sector producing practically all parts and more than 10,000 firms in small unorganized sector, in tierized format . The auto component sector has been one of the fastest growing segments of auto industry. The Industry also sustained a high growth rate and could achieve growth of 24% in 2003, 16% in 2004-05, 15% in 2005-06 and 20% in 2007-08.

In 2007-08, India’s auto components production was estimated to be US$ 18000 million. Tamil Nadu accounts for 35% of India’s auto components production (US$ 6.2 billion). The industry, over the years, developed the capability of manufacturing all components required to manufacture vehicles, which is evident from the high levels of indigenization achieved in the vehicle industry as well as the components developed for the completely Indian made vehicles.

In an economic downturn, auto component sales to the after market shares an inverse relationship to sales in the OEM segment. This holds good in case of commercial vehicles where truck operators defer fleet expansion and increase the frequency of trips resulting in higher incidence of wear and tear and thereby replacement. In 2008 – 09, auto component production growth at 4.8% bettered a 3.2% rise in automobile output. Demand from the replacement and export markets account for around 60% of the supply for a number of auto components.

Tamil Nadu accounts for about 35% of India’s auto components products. Some of the big names are: Visteon, Delphi, Robert Bosch, Lear, Hwashin, Motherson, Unipress, Valeo, Mando, etc., have large manufacturing facilities in Tamil Nadu. Three Chennai based industrial groups namely TVS, Rane and Amalgamations Groups constitue more than 25% of India’s components production. Some of them have won prestigious Deming awards, GM Supplier of the Year, etc.

Along with the establishment of mother plants by Nissan, Daimler, Renault, etc., the Government has promoted Vendors’ Parks that attract large number of ancillary projects notwithstanding the recession.
Recent initiatives of the Government
The most critical intervention of the Government thus far in the automotive sector has come in the form of an ambitious project on setting up world-class automotive testing and R&D infrastructure in the country to deepen manufacturing, encourage localized R&D, boost exports, converge India’s unparalleled strengths in IT and electronics with automotive engineering sectors to firmly place India in USD 6 trillion global automotive business. Govt of India is currently implementing a project “National Automotive Testing R&D Infrastructure Project” (NATRIP) in Oragdam near Chennai at a project cost of about Rs.450 Crores. This project aims at facilitating introduction of world class automotive safety, emission and performance standards in India as also ensure seamless integration of our automotive industry with the global industry. The project will deepen manufacturing, enhance employment, encourage localized R&D, boost exports, converge India’s unparalleled strengths in IT and electronics with automotive engineering sectors to firmly place India on the global automotive map.
Electronic hardware Industry in Tamil Nadu
Current Status :Today, Chennai has emerged as the largest Electronic Hardware manufacturing and exporting hub in India. Some of the Fortune 500 companies which have set up manufacturing facilities in Chennai neighbourhood include: Nokia, Motorola, DELL Computers, Samsung, Foxconn, Sanmina-SCI, Flextronics, and Nokia-Siemens besides more than 30 components suppliers. The total Investment in Electronics hardware industry in Tamil Nadu is estimated to be about Rs.11500 to 12000 Crores employing about 40000 workers. Nokia signed a MoU in April 2005 for establishing one plant for manufacture mobile hand-sets with an investment of Rs.675 Crores. Encouraged by the support of the present Government, the company went ahead to establish two more plants in 2007-09. The total investment made by Nokia is about Rs.1350 Crores. Today, Nokia plant in Chennai has become World’s largest mobile hand-sets manufacturing facility.

Chennai is also emerging as a centre for manufacture of Photo-voltaic (PV) cells with an investment of about Rs.4000 Crores. Moser Baer is currently establishing a PV cells plant at Oragdam Electronic Hardware SEZ with an investment of Rs.2000 Crores while Signet Solar, USA has proposed to establish a similar plant with an investment of Rs.2000 Crores in Sriperumpudur Electronic Hardware SEZ. Tamil Nadu has at present 8 Notified Electronic Hardware SEZs with a total area of about 1200 acres.
Following are some of the major Electronic hardware manufacturers in Tamil Nadu:

Major Electronic Hardware Industrial Projects in Tamil Nadu

S.No Name of the company Location Product Investment Rs. in Crores Employment - direct
01 Nokia India Pvt Ltd Sriperumpudur Nokia Telecom SEZ (210 acres) Mobile handsets 900 Crores in 3 plants 19500
02 Foxconn India Pvt Ltd Sriperumpudur Hi Tech SEZ – 2 plants Nokia SEZ – 1 plant Electronic hardware & mobile phone components 850 Crores in 3 plants 5000
03 Flextronics Sriperumpudur Hi Tech SEZ Electronic hardware & mobile phone components 450 1000
04 Samsung Sriperumpudur Hi Tech SEZ Electronic Consumer Durables 450 2500
05 Motorola Sriperumpudur Hi Tech SEZ Mobile handsets 135 3500
06 DELL Computers Sriperumpudur Hi Tech SEZ Computers & peripherals 280 1100
07 Sanmina Oragadam Hi Tech SEZ Electronic Hardware 225 4000
08 Moser Baer Oragadam Hi Tech SEZ Photo Voltaic (PV) panels 2000 2000
09 Signet Solar - Photo Voltaic (PV) panels 2000 1000
10 TAPP Semi Conductor Sriperumpudur Hi Tech SEZ Semi Conductor Testing & Packaging 1000 1000
11 Nokia Siemens Networks Oragadam Hi Tech SEZ near Chennai Mobile handsets & communication networks 300 400
12 BYD, China Oragadam Hi Tech SEZ & Irungattukottai (2 plants) Components of mobile handsets 350 4000
13 Salcomp, Finland Nokia Telecom SEZ Mobile handsets components 120 Included in the employment
14 Perlos, Finland Nokia Telecom SEZ Mobile handsets components 124
15 Wintek, Taiwan Nokia Telecom SEZ Mobile handsets components 161
16 Jabil, USA Nokia Telecom SEZ Mobile handsets components 310
17 Laird Technologies, USA Nokia Telecom SEZ Mobile handsets components 101
18 Polymatech Electronics, Japan Oragadam Hi Tech SEZ near Chennai Key pads for Mobile handsets 82 Figures of Nokia
19 Shinetsu, Japan Oragadam Hi Tech SEZ near Chennai Key pads for Mobile handsets 47
20 TVS Electronics Oragadam Hi Tech SEz Computer peripherals 100
21 Dixon Technologies Oragadam near Chennai Colour TV 37 100
22 Natronics Semiconductor Sriperumpudur Hi-Tech SEZ Semiconductor Packaging 65 100
Total 10087 45200

Including other direct and indirect vendors supplying components, the Total Investment in Electronics hardware industry in Tamil Nadu is estimated to be about Rs.11500 to 12000 Crores.
Textiles Industry in Tamil Nadu
The Indian textile industry is in a stronger position now than it was in the last six decades. The industry which was growing at 3 – 4 percent during the last six decades has now accelerated to an annual growth rate of 9 – 10 percent. There is a sense of optimism in the industry and textiles sector has now become a ‘sunrise’ sector. Considering the domestic availability of cloth, the per capita availability of cloth is projected at 62.23 sq. mtrs. by the end of the Eleventh Plan period, as against 39.17 sq. mtrs. in 2006-07, registering an annual rate of growth of 9.70 percent per annum. The per capita availability is estimated based on the projected population and expected export trend.

Strengths :
  • Strong and diverse raw material base
    • Third largest producer of cotton in the world.
    • Fifth largest producer of man-made fibre and yarn in the world.
  • Vertical and horizontal integrated textile value chain.
  • Strong presence in entire textile value chain from raw material to finished goods.
  • Globally competitive spinning industry
    • Average cotton yarn spinning cost at US$ 2.5 per kg. Which is lower than all the countries including China.
  • Low wages: rate at 0.75 US$ per operator hour as compared to US$ 1 of China and US$ 3 of Turkey.
  • Unique strength in traditional handlooms and handicrafts.
  • Flexible production system.
  • Diverse design base.
Weakness :
  • Structural weaknesses in weaving and processing.
  • 2 percent of shuttleless looms as percentage of total looms as against world average of 16 percent and China, Pakistan and Indonesia 15 percent, 9 percent and 10 percent respectively.
  • Highly fragmented and technology backward textile processing sector.
  • Highly fragmented garment industry.
  • Except spinning, all other segments are predominantly in decentralized sector.
  • The rigid labour laws : proving a bottleneck particularly to the garment sector. Large seasonal orders cannot be taken because the labour strength cannot be reduced during the slack season.
  • Inadequate capacity of the domestic textile machinery manufacturing sector.
  • Big demand and supply gap in the training facilities in textile sector.
The Textile Industry of Tamil Nadu has its significant presence in the National and State economy. It is the forerunner in Industrial development. Handloom, Powerloom, Spinning, Processing, Garment and Hosiery are the various sectors of the Textile Industry in Tamil Nadu and known for the largest economic activity next only to Agriculture in providing direct and indirect employment.

Handlooms : Tamil Nadu occupies a pride place in handloom sector with maximum number of handlooms in the Country. Handloom weaving is one of the largest economic activities in Tamil Nadu. There are 4.13 lakh handlooms located in the State in which 2.32 lakh handlooms are functioning with 1130 Handloom Weavers Cooperative Societies and the remaining 1.81 lakh looms are outside the Cooperative fold, thus providing employment to 6.08 lakh weavers.

Powerlooms : The Powerloom Sector in Tamil Nadu provides employment to around 9.14 lakh workers. As against 19.03 lakh registered powerlooms in India, 3.66 lakh are located in Tamilnadu and of that 42,566 are covered under 164 Powerloom Weavers Co-operative Societies. During the year 2008–09, these Societies have produced 1487.50 lakh metres of cloth worth around Rs. 246.09 Crores and the turnover was around Rs.253.50 Crores.

Textile and Spinning Mills :
The Textile Mills are the backbone of Tamil Nadu’s industrial development and are providing massive employment in the State predominantly spinning oriented. The State textile industry has a significant presence in the national economy also. There are 3069 large, medium and small spinning mills in India, of which, 1889 are located in Tamilnadu. The spinning mills in the State comprise 18 Cooperative Spinning Mills (5 functioning), 17 National Textile Corporation Mills (7 functioning) and 1854 Private Mills (including 23 Composite Mills). Those spinning mills provide employment for around 2.40 lakh persons. The capacity of the spinning mills in the State is around 18.92 million spindles. The State produces about 1612 million kg. of spun yarn per year and this is about 40% of the spun yarn produced per year in the entire nation.

Garment and Hosiery : The Garment Sector in Tamil Nadu is one of the fast growing sectors in the textile industry. It is located substantially around Chennai City, with specialization in cotton fibre garments. The Hosiery Units in Tamil Nadu are located at Tiruppur and are manufacturing Knitwear Garments to the tune of Rs.11000 Crores per annum. There are around 4000 knitwear and woven garment production units in the State providing employment to around 5 lakh persons.

Processing : The processing sector determines the core product value, product quality and has tremendous scope for innovations and control over the final output. Processing is an important value added segment in the Textile Industry. There are about 10397 Hand Processing Units and 2510 Power Processing Units in India, out of which 2614 Hand Processing Units and 985 Power Processing Units are located in Tamil Nadu.

No. of Spinning Mils 3069 1889
Workers (in lakh) 8.94 2.40
Spindles (in Million) 39.27 18.92
Powerlooms (in lakhs) 19.03 3.66
Workers (in lakhs) 47.57 9.14
Handlooms (in lakhs) 34.86 4.13
Weavers (in lakhs) 65.50 6.08
Handloom Cloth
Production(Bn. Sq. Mt)
6.00 0.70
Value(Rs.in Crore) 18000 1700
Power processing 2510 985
Hand Processing Units 10397 2614
Knitwear and Garment units 8000 4000
Leather Industry in Tamil Nadu - Current Status
The leather Industry in Tamil Nadu occupies a place of prominence in the State economy in view of its substantial export earnings and employment generation for women and down-trodden sections of the society. The composition of export of leather and leather products from Tamil Nadu has undergone a structural change during the last three decades, from merely an exporter of raw material in the sixties to that of value added products in the nineties. The value added finished products presently constitute around 80% of the total export from the Industry, which was mere 7% in 1956-57. The major Leather clusters in Tamil Nadu are: Ambur, Vaniyambadi, Ranipet, Peranampet, Chennai, Trichy, Erode and Dindugul.

Tamil Nadu accounts for :
  • 70% of Tanning capacity of India and 6% of Global leather requirement.
  • Annual production:Rs.15000 Crores – 60% of India’s production.
  • Export : Rs.5386 Crores – 36% of India’s exports (2007-08).
  • Employs about 5 lakhs (about 60% are women).
Total Annual Turnover over Rs. 10,000 Crores
Annual Export Turnover Rs. 4,800 Crores
Operational Tanneries About 750
Leather Products units 497 units in Uppers/Full shoes
698 Leather Garment & Goods Units
Leather Footwear 59 Million/Pairs Full Shoes / 27 Million/Pairs Shoe Uppers
Leather Garments 7.1 Million Pieces
Leather Goods 29.5 Million Pieces

There are 14 Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) and 150 Individual Effluent Treatment Plants (IETPs) functioning in treatment of effluent discharge from tanneries.
  • UNIDO Report 2009 : The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) has identified the leather cluster in Chennai, Tamil Nadu among the Top ten most dynamic industrial locations globally. In its Industrial Report 2009, UNIDO said that the Chennai Leather cluster has been positioned on the basis of its export growth exceeding the national growth rates. The other determining factors included its competitiveness in international markets, the extent to which it provided better economic and social benefits in terms of employment, skills, wages, and better environmental practices for those residing in the cluster. The UNIDO report found that Chennai Leather cluster has the highest Employment elasticity. For every 1 per cent increase in exports, employment went up by 1.3 per cent. According to this report, "'Although leather goods manufacturing is pollution-intensive, the erection of treatment plants through the efforts of relevant institutions and the State government of Tamil Nadu has helped lower pollution levels".
  • The 10 case studies featured in this UNIDO Report 2009 are from the following countries – Argentina (Buenos Aires – Automotives); Brazil (Southeastern Brazil – Pulp and paper); Cambodia (Pnom Penh – garments); Chile (Los Lagos – Salmon); China (Qiaotou – Buttons); India (Chennai – leather); Indonesia (Jakarta – Automotives); Lao PDR ( Vientiane / Champasack – Agro and Wood); Malaysia (Penang – Electric-Electronics); and Nigeria (Otigba – computer components).
  • Tamil Nadu has a dominant presence in the leather and leather based industries. The tanning industry in India has a total installed capacity of 225 million pieces of hide and skins of which Tamil Nadu alone contributes to an inspiring 70%. Leather industry occupies a pride of place in the industrial map of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu enjoys a leading position with 40% share in India’s export. It currently employs about 2.5 million persons. Council for Leather Exports (CLE) and Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) are taking steps to improve the status of the leather industry in India including Tamil Nadu. These institutions are improving the technology being used in the industry and undertaking skill up-gradation among the workers. CLRI is expecting government to release more aid packages for the leather industry in Tamil Nadu. In all, 542 tanneries are targeted for implementing Rs.640 million modernisation programme; during the Eleventh Plan that continues up to March 2012.
Sugar Industry in Tamil Nadu
Sugar Industry is the second largest Agro based industry which has successfully contributed to the rural economy. India is the second largest sugar producer in the world. Tamil Nadu is one of the major sugar producing States in the country and it contributes 9% to 10% of the total production of sugar. Our State stands first in the sugarcane productivity at the rate of 110 MTs per hectare. Sugarcane is an important crop for the State and is cultivated in an area between 2.75 and 3.00 lakh hectares in our State. Tamil Nadu is a sugar surplus State producing about 10% of the total sugar produced in the country.

As per the recent estimates, the total sugar production in the country has fallen from 263.28 lakh MTs to 142 lakh MTs during 2008-09 crushing season and the overall shortfall is to the tune of 46%. However, in the State of Tamil Nadu, the fall has not been so steep and the sugar production has gone down from 21.41 lakh MTs to 16.16 lakh MTs.

There are 41 sugar mills in Tamil Nadu comprising of 16 sugar mills in cooperative sector, 3 sugar mills in public sector and 22 sugar mills in private sector. Presently, 38 sugar mills are functioning while 3 mills, viz., Madurantakam Cooperative sugar mills, Madura sugars and Arunachalam sugar mills are not operational.

During the 2006-07 crushing season, all the 37 operating mills in the state have crushed 274.49 L.M.T. sugarcane as against 231.46 LMT of cane in 2005-06 season. The sugar production during 2006-07 season was 25.39 LMT against the previous season's 21.38 LMT. The capacity utilization of all the sugar mills during 2006-07 season was 144% as against 125% of the previous season.

The Co-operative and Public Sector Sugar Mills have crushed 87.88 LMT of cane in 2006-07 season and produced 8.09 LMT of sugar with an average sugar recovery of 9.20%. These 17 working mills as on 31.03.2008, have crushed 41.77 LMT of cane and produced 4.05 LMT of sugar with an average sugar recovery of 9.70%.

During 2008-09 crushing season, all the sugar mills in Tamil Nadu are expected to crush 166.41 LMT of sugarcane and produce 16.16 LMT of sugar with an average recovery of 9.71%. During 2008-09 crushing season as on 31.05.2009, the Co-operative, Public and Private sector sugar mills in Tamil Nadu have crushed 135.24 LMT of cane and have produced 13.32 LMT of white sugar with an average recovery of 9.85%.
Production and sale of By-products
Molasses During the year 2007-08, a quantity of 3.87 lakh MTs of Molasses have been sold with an average realisation of Rs.703/- per MT. For the current financial year 2008-09 (upto March) 2.58 lakh MTs of Molasses have been sold with an average realisation of Rs.2510.26 per MT.

Export of Sugar The Central Government have announced a subsidy of Rs.1350/- per MT for export of sugar during the 2007-08 season to liquidate sugar stocks. By utilizing the export subsidy announced by the Central Government, 2.97 LMT of sugar has been exported.

Setting up of new Integrated Sugar Complexes in Tamil Nadu Recognising the potential of sugar industry in the State, permission was granted for establishment of 9 new integrated sugar complexes and so far 3 projects have been completed and commissioned.

The Government have taken policy decision that new sugar mills will have an integrated sugar complex comprising of Co-generation plant, Distilleries, Ethanol Plant and Bio-composting facilities. It is obligatory for the new sugar mills to pay Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) and State Advised Price (SAP) to the cane growers along with cost of cane transportation.

New Co-generation plants and modernisation to make the sugar mills economically viable
Tamil Nadu is the pioneer in the establishment of co-generation plants in sugar mills having installed capacity of 404.19 M.W. The Government of Tamil Nadu have decided to establish Co-generation plants in all the 17 Co-operative and Public Sector Sugar Mills at a cost of Rs.1177 Crores. Further, Rs.322 Crores shall be spent for modernization of these mills. Tamil Nadu Electricity Board has invited tenders for establishment of Co-generation Plants and evaluation of the bids is in progress. The project will be completed within 18 months from the date of issue of orders.

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