Villupuram District lies in the northeast of Tamil Nadu, between Chennai and Tiruchirapalli. It is 162 km south of Chennai and 157 km north of Tiruchirapalli. It was carved out of the combined South Arcot District (comprising the present Cuddalore and Villupuram districts) in September 1993 and renamed as Villupuram Ramasamy Padayatchiyar District( named after a Member of Parliament from this town). The remaining part of the South Arcot district became Cuddalore District, which borders it to the east and south. It is bordered to the west by Salem and Dharmapuri districts and to the north by Thiruvannamalai and Kanchipuram Districts.
The greater part of the district contains metamorphic rocks belonging to the Genesis family. There are also three major groups of sedimentary rocks belonging to different geological periods. The Kalvarayan Hills in the north, nearly 40 kilometres from Kallakurichi, represent a continuous range of hills covered with some thorny forests and vegetation. The Gingee Hills offer some of the most beautiful scenery in the district.