It is considered to be one of the oldest surviving cities in South India. The city lies on the banks of the Palar river on the site of Vellore Fort.
It is the Ninth converted corporation in Tamilnadu.
The city lies between Chennai and Bangalore and the Temple towns of Thiruvannamalai and Tirupati.
Some of the important areas in the city includes: Vellore(center), Katpadi, Arcot, Ranipet(with BHEL & SIPCOT), Walajapet, Satuvachari, Melvisharam, Gandhi nagar, Tiruvalam, Tarapadavedu, Adukampaarai, etc;
Vellore has the blend of rich heritage and culture representing the ancient Dravidian civilization. It was the seat of the Pallavas, Cholas, Nayak, Marathas, Arcot Nawabs and Bijapur Sultan Kingdoms. Vellore was once the capital city of the mighty Vijayanagar empire during 1606-1672. The fort in Vellore was described as the best and the strongest fortress in the Carnatic War in the 17th Century. The monuments found in the district give a vivid picture of the evolution of the city through the ages.
In the region, for about the past 200 years, there were countless changes in the way of formation of kingdoms and their capitals. The 'North' and the 'South' regions of Arcot came into the political map in 1810 at the time of the last Mughal Emperor. Later in 1908, the two districts namely North and South Arcot came into existence. Chittoor (now in Andhra Pradesh) was the first capital of the North Arcot district. From then on, it was the principal military base of the British. In 1911, Vellore became the head quarters of North Arcot Dt. comprising Vellore and Thiruvannamalai.
Vellore has an average elevation of 216 metres (709 ft).
The city is 200 metres above sea level, situated 135 km South West of Chennai and 220 km East of Bangalore. Vellore is on the plains surrounded by low, rocky hills. Temperature ranges from as low as 10°C in the winter months of December-February to even 43°C in the summer months of April-June. It is essentially a dry climate, rainy and humid only at the times of the two monsoons: June-August and October-December.
Unlike other tier-II and tier-III cities of India, Vellore has a considerably huge area and a population of 900,000. The total area of the city spans across 55 km.